The work and analyses produced by E.CA is widely recognised and discussed by renowned newspapers and broadcasters. Please scroll through the following list to explore recent coverage and relevant firm news.

Page 5 of 7


Article published in the 2014 GCR Handbook of Competition Economics

E.CA contributed to the 2014 GCR Handbook of Competition Economics with a country section on Germany. The article provides an overview of the developments and enforcement output in Germany. It discusses the 8th Amendment to German competition law with regard to the significant impediment of effective competition (SIEC) test and the role of market shares. The article identifies Germany as one of the preferred jurisdictions for private litigation action within Europe, and predicts – due to recent case law - a richer set of economic tools being used. Finally it discusses recent cases pricing and distribution restraints.

The article is available here.

New publication on the competitive effects of exclusive dealing contracts

E.CA staff member Linda Gratz published a paper on the competitive effects of exclusive dealing contracts jointly with Markus Reisinger (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management) in the International Journal of Industrial Economics. Antitrust scholars have argued that exclusive dealing contracts have anticompetitive, or at best neutral effects, if no efficiencies are generated. In contrast, this paper shows that exclusive dealing contracts can have procompetitive effects, provided that buyers are imperfect downstream competitors and contract breach is feasible.

View the abstract here.

Pricing payment cards
Özlem Bedre-Defolie and Emilio Calvano published an article in the American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 5(3): 206–231.

The external abstract can be viewed here.


Overcharge estimation carried out by E.CA confirmed by Highest German Court

Yesterday the Highest German Court (BGH) fully supported the judgment of the OLG Düsseldorf in the German cement cartel case. Lars-Hendrik Röller and Hans W. Friederiszick acted as court experts in quantifying the damages. The Court concluded "particularly the overcharge estimation of the higher regional court which was attacked by the appealing parties exhibits no legal errors" [Original in German "insbesondere die von den Rechtsbeschwerdeführern angegriffenen Mehrerlösschätzungen des Oberlandesgerichts sind rechtsfehlerfrei."] The court reduced the fines by 5% to compensate the parties for procedural delays.

Press release of the BGH

Press release of the BKartA

The judgment: Beschluss des Kartellsenats vom 26.2.2013 - KRB 20/12 -

Article on regional aid published in EStAL

Hans W. Friederiszick, Nicola Tosini

The Regional Aid Guidelines foresee specific screens for an in-depth assessment of Large Investment Projects (LIPs): an in-depth assessment is initiated if the market share of the aid beneficiary is above 25% or the investment results in a capacity expansion above 5% in a declining market. It is currently being discussed within the broader State Aid Modernization package and also due to a recent court ruling on the case Propapier whether these market screens should stay as they are. Based on a dataset of all LIP cases notified under the 2006 Regional Aid Guidelines, we evaluate those market screens and find that the screens do have the power to identify problematic cases – cases with a below average expected aid effectiveness and aid measures targeting specific industries. We also find, however, that the market screens are affected by a severe implementation problem and, hence, do not help to shorten phase I investigations. From a conceptual perspective, they are also not capable of identifying some of the potentially most problematic regional State aid cases. Policy options are discussed.

View the abstract here.

Working paper published on upward pricing pressure (UPP) in two-sided markets.

Pauline Affeldt

E.CA staff member Pauline Affeldt published a working paper on upward pricing pressure (UPP) in two-sided markets jointly with Lapo Filistrucchi (Tilburg University) and Tobias Klein (Tilburg University). Upward pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as screening devices for mergers in differentiated product industries. In this paper the one-sided UPP concept, originally presented by Farrell and Shapiro (2010), is extended to two-sided markets in which indirect network effects have to be taken into account. The derived formulas are then applied to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch daily newspaper market. The results indicate that taking the two-sidedness of the market correctly into account makes a difference when evaluating UPP.

View the abstract here.

New publication on the Relevance of Efficiencies in Abuse of Dominance Cases

Hans W. Friederiszick, Linda Gratz

The European Commission’s policy on the relevance of efficiency considerations in abuse of dominance cases (Article 102 TFEU) has not been resolved satisfactorily. In an attempt to give guidance on this matter, we address the topic from two different angles: First, we review EC soft law provisions and recent decisions. Second, we explore – in the example of low price strategies – business practitioners’ views on the relevance of the pro and anti-competitive motives behind such strategies.

View the abstract here.

E.CA Economics named in The Economics 20

E.CA Economics has again been named in The Economics 20 by the Global Competition Review as one of the world’s leading competition economics firms.

Since 2008, E.CA has been named consistently in this survey, which is a guide to the world’s leading economics consultancies that emphasizes the size of the firm’s practice, its reputation, an evaluation of work completed in the past year and the talent of individual economists.

For more information, please visit the GCR Website.

Best Conference Paper Award for Thomas Hildebrand (E.CA Economics), Jörg Rocholl (ESMT) and Alexander Schulz (Deutsche Bundesbank)

Thomas Hildebrand

E.CA Economics staff member Thomas Hildebrand received a Best Conference Paper Award from the European Finance Association (EFA) at its annual meeting held in Copenhagen on August 15-18, 2012.
The paper "Flight to Where ? Evidence from Bank Investments During the Financial Crisis" was co-authored by Jörg Rocholl (President of ESMT European School of Management and Technology) and Alexander Schulz (Deutsche Bundesbank).
The prize is the highest distinction of the conference.

Download the ESMT press release in EN and DE.

Article published on network effects in two sided markets

Thomas Hildebrand

E.CA Economics staff member Thomas Hildebrand published an article on the estimation of network effects in two-sided markets in Economics Letters, a leading Economics journal. The antitrust economics of two-sided markets differ substantially from those of classical one-sided markets. Therefore, the question whether a market is two-sided or not is crucial for choosing adequate competition policy measures. However, answering this question is difficult because it typically requires complex data. The paper proposes an alternative, so-called “semi-structural” approach that makes it possible to identify and quantify network effects in two-sided markets without data on prices and quantities and without using instrumental variable techniques. Instead, only data on equilibrium revenue and on demand and/or cost shifters is required.

View the abstract here.